Cretan Graphic & Babylonian Astro-Chronological Systems in Georgian Alphabet and Monuments
GEO | ENG

Theses

 

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Volume           Not more than 300 words in English
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Sessions
Plenary speech: 30 minutes, discussion 10 minutes
Lectures: 20 minutes, discussion 5 minutes

 

Important dates

Deadline for abstract submission       August 25, 2014

Deadline for poster submission          September 5, 2014
Notification on abstract acceptance   September 10, 2014

Conference Theses

 

Раул Гветадзе
Грузинский Технический Университет

Алфавитная система и археологические памятники писменности Иберийской цивилизации

История развития самобытной грузинской писменности насчитывает 4000 лет. Её истоки найдены на острове Крит, где на свыше 1 400 глиняных табличках и предметах нанесены тексты, составленные пиктографическими знакам или  А-линейной слоговой писменостью, были прочитаны на Протокартвельском языке.
Наряду с финикийским консонантным и гречексим вокализированныим алфавитами, особое место занимает грузинский астрономизорованный алфавит Аосмтаврули. Этот алфавит – шедевр, общечеловеческого значения, Иберийско-грузинской цивилизации античной эпохи, так как в нём содержатся энциклопедического характера данные по астрономии, математике, хронологии и теологии. И, таким образом, представляет собой высшую ступень алфавитной писменности.
В грузинском алфавите Асомтаврули у идиограмм и одноимённых буквенных знаков в алфавитном ряду имеюстя фиксированная позиция и индивидуальное числовое значение. Структура алфавита состоит из информационных групп, при помощи которых вычисляются вавилонское затмение солнца, 19-летний солнечно-лунное календарное равенство Метонового цикла, 684-летний древневосточный хронологический цикл, продолжительность года по солнечному календарю, равному 365,25 дням, число =3,14 и эклиптическая постоянная ( Sk = 1147) видимого годового движения Солнца по зодиакальному кругу.
Зашифрованная в Асомтаврульском алфавите астрономическая и календарная информация приобретает чёткую форму, при помещении в квадратную матрицу 6х6=36.
Подобным образом размещённые буквы именуются «Иберийско-грузинским алфавитным квадратом», в котором одно диагональное направление этого магического квадрата именуется Лунной диагональю, так как на ней отображено изменение лунных фаз, а другое – солнечной диагональю. Произведением числовых значений номеров в алфавитном раду 6-ой и 31-ой букв, расположенных в начале и в конце солнечной диагонали, зафиксирован 186-суточный период астрономического сезона от весеннего равноденствия до осеннего.
В раду из 37 букв идиограмма солнца, именуемое «Раэ», занимает 19-ое место - центральную позицию. В случае, если взять по парно, равноудалённые от «Раэ», буквы, мы получим 18 пар, чья сумма номеров в алфавитном ряду составляет 38, а среднеарифметическое - 19: (1+37)= 2х19; 2+36=2х19 и т.д..
При помещении парных числовых знаков на трёх концентрированных окружностях, они расположатся в магической круг. Сумма чисел, по 6 расположенных на диаметре круга, равнозначны и равняется 144, а сумма номеров в алфавитном ряду 12 букв, расположенных на каждом окружности, равна 228. По магическому кругу вычисляется вавилонский таинственный лунный пероид: 6х114=684; 3х228=684. Таким образом, система числовых знаков астрономизированного алфавита приобретают геометрически совершенную магическую форму.
Артефактом, подтверждающим высокий уровень Иберийской цивилизации, является некресский солнечно-лунный календарь и система национального летоисчисления, начало которой 284 год до н.э. (астрономически  -283 год) связан с Большим парадом планет. В результате археоастрономических исследований было установлено, что мемориальный храм Солнца иберийского царя Парсмана в Некреси и, т.н., Шарагасская стелла иберийского царя Митридата II, датированы  19-летним Метоновым циклом и соответсвует  323 и 380 годам иберийской хронологической системы, или 40 и 97 годам Христианской эры.

 

Гурам Церцвадзе
Грузинский течнический университет

Астрономическо-хронологическая система древнегрузинского алфавита

Палеографию древнегрузинского монументального письма «Асомтаврули» создал выдающийся грузинский учёный-осторик Иване Джавахишвили, согласно которому, эта письменность является памятником языческого периода (VII-VIII в.в. до н.э.). В 80-ых годах прошлого столетия научную концепцию И. Джавахишвили о генезисе древнегрузинской письменности существенно развил и уточнил известный грузинский историк и палеограф Р. Патаридзе, который создание грузинской письменности отнёс к V веку до н.э.. Ему же принадлежит научное предположение о том, что в древнегрузинском алфавите в зашифрованной форме содержится важнейшая информация об асторономических и календарных соотношениях. Работы в этом направлении положили начало многофакторному анализу древнегрузинского алфавита, основные результаты которого содержится в нашей монографии «Криптоанализ грузинского алфавита Асомтаврули». В ней показано, что создатели алфавита для датировок исторических событий избрали т.н. принцип совпадений астрономических явлений, данные о которых в зашифрованной форме содержатся в самом алфавите. К этому выводу мы пришли благодаря экспертной модели распознания зашифрованной информации в конечном многофакторном множестве упорядоченных символов.  

Результаты криптоанализа древнегрузинского алфавита не только подтвердили ранее высказанные предположения относительно генезиса древнегрузинской письменности Асомтаврули, но и выявили важнейшие сведения, относящиеся к архаичной арифметике, знаменитым древневавилонским астрономическим достижениям, в частности: периоду лунно-солнечного затменя и каледарным циклам.

 

Dali Bakhtadze
Ilia State University

At the origins of abstraction and Semantic Structures of Georgian Graphic Symbols
(Abstract)

There is a permanent connection between the language and abstract reasoning. They develop together and form organic integrity. Language formulates horizons and has unlimited possibilities for verbalization or subjects or circumstances. Archaic Colchic script symbols, sacral runic script logograms of magic function contain the messages, independent semantic units, and semantic structures. Semantic form of these logarithms or ideograms is neither lexical nor phonemic unit. Abstract prevails over the concrete in them. In runic scripts, in the process of abstraction, the separate events are semantically combined and generalized as notions. There is a long and difficult way from logogram to letter and is connected to phased changes of reference and gradual conversion of lingual abstraction, when transfer from abstract to specific takes place, i.e. transfer from generalized concepts semantically existed in human imagination to specific lingual sound. Such a partitive relationship between the whole and a particle is accompanied with double reference: abstract and relative – in relation to the factual reality and interdependence of the whole and a particle.
Runes reached the Europe in early 20th century. German scientist H. Fenrich (2013) confirms the presence of the writing in Georgia prior to Fanavaz stating that along with classical arched graphemes found in archaeological materials of Nekresi, Rustavi and those scattered in various districts of Georgia, hitherto unknown archaic graphemes of pictographic nature and magic function coexist. Their resemblance to the Greek graphemes is excluded (Kuftin), as they are only found on the territory of Georgia.

 

Gia Kvashilava
 Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University
 

On Reading and Identifying the Vessel Name KA-DI
of Linear A Clay Tablets ZA 4 and ZA 15

 
 The paper presents the reading and identification of the Linear A (LA) sign-sequence  [ka-di] on clay tablets ZA 4 (HM 1615 + 2 frr.) and ZA 15 (HM 1627). The tablets were found by N. Platon in Crete in 1963, during the excavations of a Minoan palace of Zakros; the tablets were dated as belonging to LM IB period (Platon, Brice 1975; GORILA 1976, III, XIII, XIV, XVI, XXII).
                                
Inscriptions on sides a and b of tablet ZA 4.
According to GORILA 1976, III, 148-151.
          
Inscriptions on side b of tablet ZA 15.
According to GORILA 1976, III, 184-185.
 
 1. The phonemic value of sign seguence  [ka-di]
 According to GORILA, in line 8 of side a of LA tablet ZA 4 (HM 1615 + 2 frr.) the sequence  LA077/KA + LA007/DI is immediately followed by number ¦ᑊ    3, and in line 1 of side b the ideogramm of ‘wine’  LA131a/VINa is presented, after which only sign-sequence ߋ¦¦     number 104 can be distinguished.
 In line 1 of side b of tablet ZA 15 (HM 1627) the same sequence of signs  LA077/KA + LA007/DI is immediately followed by a punctuation mark     a dot, and the ‘wine’ ideogramm  LA131a/VINa, is followed by the number ¦ᑊ     3.
 The signs  LA077/KA + LA007/DI are respectively read as [ka] and [di] syllables, which is fully consistent with the phonological value of Linear B (LB) signs  LB077 and  LB007 as deciphered by M. Ventris (see: Chadwick 1970, 165; Kvashilava 2011, 252). The signs of LA and LB are given below:
 
 
Comp.: Evans 1952, II, 11, 20; CoMIK 1986, I, 1, 29, 36-44, 51, 53, 54, 57;
1990, II, 5, 6, 9-12, 25, 31, 33; 1998, IV, 16, 22; GORILA 1985, V, XXIX, XL;
Douros 2008, 25, 29; Kvashilava 2011, 243, 244.
 
 The phonemic value of LA sign-sequence  [ka-di/*kwa-di], the presumed meaning of which     a vessel for keeping wine, might be connected with the Common Kartvelian (CK) archetype      დ-ი [ ḳwad-i]. The data is presented below.
 
 2. The Reconstruction of the CK archetype       -       - [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-]
 The theory of morphonologic structure and typology of CK presented by Th. Gamkrelidze and G. Machavariani (1965, 366-368) on the basis of the comparative study of Kartvelian languages allows among others the comparative and inner reconstruction of Later CK archetype      დ-      დ- [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-] meaning clay or wooden vessel (for storing wine, water, oil, grain etc)5.
5. To the Late CK archetype      დ-      დ- [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-] ‘clay or wooden vessel’ the following data: Late CK       -       - [*ḳwaṭ-/*ḳweṭ-] ‘a small clay vessel’ (see Kvashilava 2014, 118-122); Pre-Greek (?), Semitic (?) κάδος – a jar or vessel for wine and other fluids, a liquid measure (see Beekes 2010, I, 614; comp.: Chantraine 1968, II, 478; Boisacq 1916, 389; Peruzzi 1956, IV, 166; SOS 1976, 99 ff.); κάδη (δημοτική) – μέγα ξύλινον βυτίον(Dimitrakos 1964, VII, 3498); Hamito-Semitic (Afro-Asiatic) *ḳad-, *ḳod- – ‘vessel’ (see Orel, Stolbova 1995, 334, №1534; 343, №1579); Egyptian  [kɜṯw] – pot, vessel (Wallis Budge 1920, II, 791); Middle Egyptian  [qd] – pot (Dickson 2006, 304) may be compared.
 A. Bomhard (2014, II, 544-545, №492) has reconstructed Proto-Nostratic nominal form *k’ud-a (~ *k’od-a) – ‘vessel, pot’. Here k’ = ḳ.
6. According to Th. Gamkrelidze and G. Machavariani (1965, 366 ff., 146, 307 ff.) the relative quantity of CK    [*e] and    [*a] vowels is compared to  ო [*o] that is very rare in affixal and root morphemes of CK origin, playing only insigniticant role in the ablaut system. The authors (Gamkrelidze, Machavariani 1965, 367, 43, 232; Zhgenti 1956, 218-220) believe that the phoneme  ო /*o/ is of comparatively later origin in the system of CK, and is in most cases produced from           [*we/*wa] cluster.
 In the position #C–V the sonant     /*w/ of the Later CK root-morpheme       დ-      დ- [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-]} is manifested by the non-syllabic allophone     [*w]. The syllabic element in this case is the vowel   /   [*e/*a]6.
 According to Th. Gamkrelidze and G. Machavariani, the non-syllabic     [*w] variant of the labial     /*w/, being an independent unit, merges with the proceding simple consonant    [ ḳ]; this results in the most frequent and natural cluster       [ ḳ w], which according to morphonologic structure is functionally equal to the single consonant phoneme      ḳ  (Gamkrelidze, Machavariani 1965, 198, 306, 368; Gamkrelidze 2008, 52; Gamkrelidze 1966, 80, 3.3).
 According to the ‘Principle of Monovocalism’ (Gamkrelidze, Machavariani 1965, 1965, 309, comp. 243; Kvashilava 2014, 119) the nominal-grade root-morpheme       დ-      დ- [ ḳwad-
  ḳwed-]} merges with the reduced-grade suffixal morpheme {*-იჲ [ -ij]} which is considered by me to be the reduced-grade of the nominal case suffixal morpheme {*- ჲ [ -ej]}.
 The reconstructed root-morpheme       დ-      დ- [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-]} and the suffixal morpherme {*-იჲ [ -ij]} are respectively of CVC- and -VS structural types which represent canonical forms of stem and suffixal morphermes of CK (comp. Gamkrelidze, Machavariani 1965, 304, 318, 368).
 As a result of the CK process           [*we/*wa] >  ო [ o]7, linguistically attested in Georgian, Mingrelian and Laz forms are received form the CK archetype      დ-      დ-ი [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-i]:
7. In this case the CK vowel * /*  [*e/*a] is labialized when merged with the sonant     [*w], and  ო [*o] is received (comp.: Gamkrelidze, Machavariani 1965, 367, 232, 43; Zhgenti 1956, 119-220).
8. Georgian კოდ-ი [ḳod-i] = კოდ-ა [ḳod-a] (DGL 1955, IV, 1255-1256);
 Georgian კოდ-ა [ḳod-a] (Kartlian, the Ksani valley dialect) – a bottomless vessel fixed into a spring; a wooden barrel placed in the a spring (Glonti 1984, 297);
 Georgian კოდ-ან-ა [ḳod-an-a] (Upper-Adjaran dialect) – a cylindic clay vessel for making butter (Nizharadze 1961, 252; Glonti 1984, 297).
 It is to be noted that R. Gordeziani (2007, II, 198, 187) compared Kartvelian *კოდ- [*ḳod-] to Semitic (?) κόνδυ ‘name of a drinking-vessel; also to κονδύλιον a small vessel (see also Beekes 2010, I, 745).
 
 ➤ Georgian კოდ-ი [ḳod-i]8 – vessel (and measure) for dry substances, tub (Klimov 1998, 98; Климов 1964, 113; Orbeliani 1991, I, 378-379, II, 71, 409);
 Georgian კოდ-ი [ḳod-i] – 1. a big wooden vessel made of hollowed out tree trunk usually used for storing grain and flour, also dairy products (or keeping fluids); 2. a whole-wooden oblong vessel placed in spring water for cattle to drink from it; 3. a vessel of different sizes; 4. a hollowed out and bottomless tree-trunk that is fixed vertically into a spring water to dam water that then comes out (DGL 1955, IV, 1255-1256)
 Georgian კოდ-ი [ḳod-i] (in dialects: Kartlian, Kiziq, Khevsurian, Mtiuletian, Pshavian, Gudamaqrian, Tushetian, Mokhevian, Imeretian) – 1. a big cask, barrel made of a hollowed out tree trunk with a bottom used for storing flour, wheat, butter, etc; 2. a harvest measure jug; 3. a hollowed out wood trunk that – if with a bottom, is used as a vessel (e.g., to store bread); a bottomless one is fixed into a spring for water to dam up into it; 4. a wooden barrel for storing wheat and flour; 5. measure for grain; 6. (Pshavian and Tushetian dialects) a big wooden vessel for keeping beer or wheat (see Glonti 1984, 297);
 Georgian კოდ-ი [ḳod-i] (Upper-Adjaran dialect) – a wooden vessel, a cylinderic water barrel; also used as weight measure (Nizharadze 1961, 252);
 ➤ Mingrelian კოდ-ი [ḳod-i] – a clay or wooden drinking vessel for wine (Kajaia 2002, II, 154; 2009, IV, 281; comp. Кипшидзе 1914, 260(464)); vessel made of one piece of wood (Klimov 1998, 98; Климов 1964, 113); a measure of grain; a drinking vessel for wine; a measure of liquid (Kobalia 2010, 371);
 ➤ Laz კოდ-ი [ḳod-i] – a wooden vessel (see: Fähnrich, Sarjveladze 2000, 288; Fähnrich 2007, 249).
 
 If a normal-grade root-morpheme       დ- [ ḳwed-]} is followed by zero-grade { -    [*-Øw]}, long-grade { -    [*-ēl]} and reduced-grade {*-იჲ [ -ij] > *-ი [ -i]} suffixal morphemes, then according to the ‘Principle of Monovocalism’, the normal-vocalic grade of the root transforms into the reduced grade:
 
    იდ-  -   -ი [ ḳwid-w-ēl-i].
 
 This sequence of the morphemes here is of stucture CiC-S-VS-V.
 As a result of the CK process       [ wē] >  ო  [  ] and of elision of the vowel  ი [*i] the attested Svan forms are received from Later CK archetype     იდ-  -   -ი [ ḳwid-w-ēl-i]:
 ➤ Svan    იდ-ო   [ḳwid- l] (Upper Bal, Lashkhian dialects);    იდ-ო  [ḳwid-ol] (Lower Bal, Lentekhian dialects) – a cask, a measure jug for grain, a small basket (Topuria, Kaldani 2000, 772).
 
 Summary
 1. In 1963 the LA inscriptions on tablets ZA 4 (HM 1615 + 2 frr.) and ZA 15 (HM 1627) were found by N. Platon during the excavations of a Minoan palace of Zakros (Crete); the tablets were dated as belonging to LM IB period;
 2. In these inscriptions the LA signs  LA077+LA007 is deciphered by me as sequence ka-di/*kwa-di;
 3. This sequence is interpreted by me as CK archetype      დ-      დ-ი [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-i] ‘clay or wooden vessel’;
 4. The ‘Principle of Monovocalism’ laid down by Th. Gamkrelidze and G. Machavarian (1965, 1982) for CK accounts for the regular changes that are attested in contemporary Kartvelian (Georgian with dialects, and Mingrelian, Laz and Svan) as received from CK archetype      დ-      დ-ი [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-i];
 5. The reconstructed root-morpheme       დ-      დ- [ ḳwad-  ḳwed-]} and the suffixal morpherme {*-იჲ [ -ij] > *-ი [ -i]} are respectively of CVC- and -VS/-V structural types which pepresent canonical forms of CK morphermes;

6. The study of Kartvelian data fully supports the decipherment and interpretation of the sign-sequence  [ka-di/*kwa-di] of CK.

 

Кананчев  Зураб  Вахтангович
Директор
Научно-исследовательского Центра
 «Южный Кавказ»
научный сотрудник
Центра изучения Центральной Азии,
Кавказа и Урало-Поволжья
Института востоковедения
Российской Академии Наук

 

"Алфавит Кавказской Албании: о некоторых особенностях источниковедческого и историографического дискурса"

Интерес к истории и культуре Кавказской Албании с каждым днем возрастает. После обнаружения и дешифровки албано-грузинских палимпсестов (Sin-13,Sin-55) проблема изучения албанской письменности и алфавита получила новое развитие.
Между тем, историческое прошлое Кавказской Албании за последние десятилетия становилось зачастую объектом околонаучных, политизированных исследований  и фальсификаций. Особенностью данного процесса является недостаточная освещенность и противоречивость в источниках. Отсутствие рукописного наследия на албанском языке и незначительный эпиграфический материал не позволяли исследователям до последнего времени ответить на вопросы о времени появления алфавита, лицах, его создавших, распространении письменности в народе, языке древних албанцев. Имеющиеся сведения в некоторых армянских источниках (Корюн, Лазарь Парпеци, Моисей Хоренаци) зачастую противоречивы и предвзяты. Труд  Моисея Каланкатуйского «История албан»  дошел до нас в отредактированном и откорректированном виде, что не позволяет в полной древней письменной традиции и  литургии.

 

Anna Meskhi
Gori state teaching university

Ancient Writing Systems, their Protective Deities, and Kartvelian Languages
(Linguocultural Analysis of Sumerian and Egyptian Writing Systems)

The present paper offers a new vision on the features of Sumerian and Egyptian writing which, in view of traditional Near Eastern Studies, are regarded as the foundation for their distinction. Graphic design, the principle of linguistic notation, divine insignia, and the names of Sumerian and Egyptian Gods of Writing are those heterogeneous items that at close inspection, contrary to our knowledge on the subject, unite the mentioned systems. The next two features are similarities that tie Sumerian and Egyptian writing together. One of them is the belief of ancient civilizations on the divine origin of their writing systems, and the other is the identical source of origin of the Sumerian Nabu and Egyptian Thoth. A comparative study of the Kartvelian lexemes neba, neb, näb, a-nab meaning “wish, desire, granting permission to do something” and the Sumerian nab (“god”) and Nabu (“God of Writing”) demonstrates not only their phonetic identity but more interestingly, a new type of relationship existing between the archetype and its derivatives.*
This new type of relationship between the archetype and its derivative/s rests on complementary, additive, and interpenetrating relations between their lexical meanings. The two principles build a unique linguistic mechanism capable of generating not only linguo-paleographic but also historico-cultural and religious information about the divine will of creation attested in ancient sacred literature (Josephus, The book of Enoch the Prophet). The unprecedented linguo-culturalogical unity of the dead Sumerian and the living Kartvelian suggests a key role of the latter in Near Eastern Studies or Historical Linguistics – something that has been unjustly neglected to-date.
*Note: Egyptian Thoth is not discussed in the present presentation.

 

КОБРИНСКИЙ АЛЕКСАНДР МИХАЙЛОВИЧ
Израиль 

ИБЕРИЙСКИЕ ТОЖДЕСТВА

На основе краткого лингвистического экскурса [1] и учета работ предшественников [2], а также сопутствующих исторических реалий, высказана гипотеза о путях распространения иберийских этносов и заселения ими в древнейшие времена Пиренейского полуострова и Британских островов.

Основным моментом работы является предположение, что иберийские этносы не могли заселить окраину Европы путем пересечения ее уже обжитых пространств, поскольку неминуемо столкнулись бы на своем пути с многочисленными  воинствующими племенами. Самым приемлемыми для такой миграции являлись малозаселенные пространства узкой береговой полосы Северной Африки вплоть до Гибралтарского пролива. Маршрут этого возможного передвижения (Рис. 1) указан на представленной карте линией.

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Рис1. Маршрут миграции иберийских племен

Предположение об осуществимости указанного маршрута породил целый ряд побочных гипотез.

Одна из них заключается в том, что постоянное пересечение дельты Нила (на карте участок А) воинствующими иберийскими племенами привело к тому, что оседлое вдоль берегов Нила население, занимающееся орошением и выращиванием сельскохозяйственных культур,  избегало селиться в районах дельты. В связи с этим становится объяснимым факт появления и развития на исторической арене вначале Верхнего Египта.

Вторая гипотеза касается разговорного языка кельтов. В местах их обитания притоки Рейна имеют названия семитического происхождения (участок Б / Рис. 2) [3].  

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Рис 2. Устье реки Рейна. Наименования притоков

Подобная топонимика могла возникнуть при условии, что коренной этнос (в данном случае кельты) населяющий устье реки Рейна говорил на семитическом наречии.

И еще одна гипотеза, в опоре на выше приведенные доводы, исходит из факта культурологического слияния разноименных этносов (иберов и кельтов) в единый этнос – культиберийский: такое слияние могло произойти, прежде всего, на одинаковой языковой и религиозно культовой основе.

Л И Т Е Р А Т У Р А

1. А. Кобринский, Иберийские тождества (стр. 425–435) / Иберийские тождества (онтология языка и культуры), Иерусалим-Москва, изд. Э.РА, 2007. – 464 с.
2. А. Бибилашвили, «Иверия – Иберия»?, URL – http://iberiana.wordpress.com/about/bibilashvil/;
3. А. Кобринский, Почти послесловие / к главе I (стр. 175–180) // Иберийские тождества (онтология языка и культуры), Иерусалим-Москва, изд. Э.РА, 2007. – 464 с.

 

Paata Iakashvili
Shota Rustaveli Theatre and Film University

Sign proto-Georgian sign of Civilization: orientation in time and space on the example of Megalithic Observatories in “Kura-Arax” culture

  1. “Shulaveri’s Kura-Aras culture” , “Trialeti culture”, also  early states on the Goergian historic and modern territory “Colchis and Diaukha” and later the “Iberia” and “Egresis” kingdoms are past stages of state building by one ethnic group of Georgians.
  2. Unconditional sign of development of that culture is creation of observatories to make an “Orientation in time and space” for example, Georgian Megalith , creation of which had been  proved by American scientist Gordon Houston

 

 

Liana Oqropiridze
Georgian Technical University

Ancient mythos scenes on Old-Bronze Age artifacts kept at Shida-Kartli  museums

Complex studies proved ancient origin of cultures on the territory of Georgia and their interdependence with the III-I millennium B.C. world civilizations. Factual material found as a result of archaeological excavations (ceramics, metal), diverse monuments depicting Georgian cultural heritage serve to determination of a position and historical function of our country in universal values.
With this in view, bronze inventory found on the territory of Shida-Kartli attributed to II-I millennium B.C. (belts, axes), all impregnated with an idea of cosmogony given by mythos scenes engraved on them which were created in mentality of prehistoric community and was materialized in the form of images, defines attitude of a man to the world. Compositions given on archeological ritual designation artifacts by their closed forms, geometrical figures (rhomb, triangle) and ritual scenes express integrity of the world, its origin and end.
Thematic of the exposed artifacts, with  its  realistic or abstract scenes and compositions  which were created  back in the archaic period, with the regular system  of mentality preserved for centuries, were later expressed on the well known Kolkhida bronze axes .
Expression of attitude to sacral world based on human mentality that was given on the above referred monuments is one of the vivid traditional forms of Georgian culture.

 

 

Aleksandre Sichinava, Badri Tskadadze
Georgian Technical University

The Image-Symbols of the Ancient Cosmographic and Paleographic Monuments of Samegrelo Region

It is universally known that the ancient Colchis had attracted world travelers and researchers from time immemorial. Suffice it to mention thereupon the myth about the Colchis Medea and Argonauts (see A. Urushadze, The Ancient Colchis in the Legend about the Argonauts, Tb., 1964; A. Urushadze, The Country of the Enchantress Medea, Tbilisi, 1984; O. Lortkipanidze, The Ancient Colchis, Tb.; O. Japaridze, On the Issue of the Ethnic History of Georgian Tribes according to Archaeological Data, Tb., 1976 (see Part III: The West Transcaucasia in the 3rd Millennium B.C., etc.).
So the Ancient Colchis historical past and artifacts interested the researchers of both ancient and Christian periods, especially the 19th and 20th century Asian and European, as well as Georgian investigators. 
The scientists are delighted with the ancient Colchis antiques even today. For example, in 2013 on the pages of the Georgian Technical University journal “Business Engineering” the complex of so-called cosmic structures of Samegrelo was named “the sensation of year”: a) the recumbent body on the right bank of the Tobavarchkhili (with dimensions 200 X 40 m). Note: worth mentioning here is the hydronim Tobavarchkhili, which in the Megrelian means “Silver Lake”. Can this name point to the existence of silver on the bottom or surface of this lake?  b) The object chiseled in the Osindale Monastery, the geometrical image of which leaves the impression of flying object. A round body is tied to its side (some are of the opinion that this image is a planet, from whence the object had flown); c) The so-called “Kua Kantsalia” (Tsalenjikha, the Quira Mountain), which in the Megrelian means a “swinging rock” (at a slight touch of finger the rock starts to swing – while it swings it emits a knocking sound, but a large-tonnage lorry cannot budge it. The unknown body in the village of Jikhashkari is distinguished by something else: on each Annunciation day it emits a knocking sound, dust and snow do not stick to it, it reflects snowflakes and rain; moss and thorns-winter peas cannot grow on it, it is not buried in the earth – that is, it is on the surface of earth.
It should be noted that these objects have been studied for 40 years by foreign (Russian, Austrian, Bulgarian, Swiss, American, Lithuanian …) scientists, while Georgian researchers for some unknown reason prefer to keep silent.
According to ancient historical sources these objects were well known to the Roman general Pompey, St. Andrew the First-Called, the Queen Tamar. One of the legends says that Tamar’s body was carried towards Svaneti, but her body did not reach Svaneti and was buried in Osindale. So, according to the legend, the Queen Tamar lies in the 27 km long “Shurubumu” Cave (Shurubumu – “with bated breath,” a “very quiet place”), located under the Osindale Monastery.
To the miracles of Tobavarchkhili Lake also belongs a blind fish (about 5 cm long) found there, which is transparent; its variety is recorded-spread only in the Indian Ocean (a sizeable specimen about 35 cm long).
In the village of Taya our attention is drawn to two “underground rivers” (they are visible on the surface, but their trail disappears in the depths of rock. They are called Shiksha and Khasha (based on our etymology “shiksha” means “inner”, “the inside,” “interior,” while “khasha” is salty water (compare: “khashuri – the salt of salty water, or something resembling salt coming out of water or lake: alum, niter, etc.” (S.-S. Orbeliani, Georgian Dictionary, Tb., 1966). These rivers are also indicated on the geographic map of Georgia.
And finally, the Osindale Monastery is also distinguished by the fact that besides the unknown and mysterious objects painted on its walls worth mentioning is the Pichkhaia family’s seal ring, which may not be of terrestrial origin. The inscription pressed on it needs special deciphering. As regards the inscription on the church façade it may be dated back to the time of the arrival in Georgia of St. Andrew the First-Called (in the paper the paleographic analysis will be presented of this inscription).
In our opinion, for the complex scientific study of the above indicated objects it is necessary that a special sectoral commission should be created on a governmental-international level (with the participation of an archaeologist, physicist, mathematician, the scientific workers of the center for space research, as well as a geographer, paleontologist, linguist-toponymist, art historian …), so that the ancient cosmographic and paleographic monuments of Samegrelo region should be investigated thoroughly.

 

 

Edisher Gvenetadze
Assoc. professor, Tbilisi Technical University

Gamochinebuli’s Great Martyr George Church-Monastery Emblazonry and Relics

The most remarkable sight of the historic Sajavakho region, geographically bordering the Imereti kingdom, Guria and Odishi governorate, is located in the XI-th century built and then restored Saint Great Martyr George church-monastery in Gamochinebuli, Zando mountain.
During the monastery construction works the saint parts of the Saint Great Martyr George were buried there and the church was reckoned the wonder-working. From the oldest times it was counted the main church among the working churches all around in the villages. To say more, in the second half of the XVIII century the monastery was lead by the bishop. In particular, after the Osmals have conquered the Kvemo Guria cancelled was Khinotsminda eparchy, the bishop Iohann (Tsutsunava)  of Khinotsminda fled to Christian Guria. In 1780 bishop Iohann of Khinotsminda was made the Jumati bishop. In 1782 the king Solomon the Ist sent  Iohann of Khinotsminda to Gamochinebuli monastery.
Iohann of Khinotsminda has moved the church relics in the monastery of Gamochinebuli. The most significant relic – golden icon of the Virgin he moved in Gamochinebuli together with priest Gabriel. The icon was interspersed “with white gold (platinum) and decorated with many gems”. Soon Georgians were made Muslims and they took the icon back, but  Mamia Gurieli saved it and the record was made on it “God bless wholly Saint Mamia Gurieli”. The contemporary men were delighted by the arts of the icon, the old men were witnessing they saw the golden icon of the Virgin “it is the beauty itself… the whole world is worth it”. Unfortunately, in 1904 the mentioned icon was stolen by burglars and it is lost.
In the church the records were made in Asomtavruli and Mkhedruli: წარწერები:“ქეჰა:შ~ნ:უძლეველო:მხედაროო~ისაოდიდო:მოწამეო:გ~ი:შ~ე:ფ~დ:ც~ი:ერისთვის:შვილი:ქ~ფორეგანმაახლებელისყ~დრისა:ამის:რ~ნ:მეორედ:იერუსალიმად:წარვიდა:და აღე~ლა.-ქ. Eha, You, the unconquered ranger of the God, great Martyr George, show mercy to sinner Eristavi son Cristephore on the renewed throne who went to Jerusalem twice and died there.  “ქ.მოიხსენე:წ~ო:გ~იდა(ვ)[ით]:ოსმ[ა:და]:მოწაფენი:აღვაშენეთნებითა:ღ[თსთ]ა….მ….ისნი:[ფ]…..ა-ქ. მოიხსენეწ(მიდაო) გ(იორგ)I და[ვით]უ-სტ[ა და] მოწაფენი მისნი. აღვაშენეთ ნებითა ღ[ვთისათ]-ა.....მ.....ფ......ა....”
To the west of the church there was the two-stage bell tower of limestone, having the following  record on its eastern part (Mkhedruli): “This is to remember souls of Gigo Kaloiani and his parents. I, Otia Kaloiani have spent three tumani for the building of the bell tower in the year 1856”.
According to one of the legends, the golden icon of the Saint George moved from Abkhazia, and in his name the monastery was built further. After some time as the people asked priests, the icon was set to the copper vessel and buried it in the monastery cathedral. The place is mysterious even today.
In the Gamochenili Saint George church they had flag-cross embroidered with silver and records. There is one legend concerning this flag-cross: in old times there was a custom here before the East, on the red Friday a man from Targamadze family took the cross all over the village. People were making donations upon their wish. With the money collected they bought a victim (sheep)6 which then on the East morning after the divine service was fried and given to Kaloians (the nobleman). They took the sheep shoulders and told the people to call the others because there was a victim. People came. The Kaloians took the victim and threw it towards the people. People were catching it. When they were burying dead men, the postulant was carrying the mentioned cross ahead of the procession (In 1922 the relic was stolen by robbers). 
The Gamochinebuli Saint George church is the most significant Christian monument in that in 60-es of the XVIII century its deacon was Eftvime Genateli (Ekvtime Sharvashidze), now he is  raised to the saints.  On March 27, 1790 the “Book of the victims of Eftvime Genateli for Gamochinebuli population” tells us that “as I was the deacon, the church and people were listening to me, I was said the Genateli man and after that we appointed the serviceman and listened to them”.
In the Gamochinebuli Saint George church the Saint Philimon the singer (Koridze) was performing the christening. In the Gamochinebuli Saint George church father of the Saint Philimon the singer – Iese Koridze, who was let into the clergyman by the Eftvime Genateli.

 

 

Gela  Gvinepadze
Georgian Technical University

New, "water" theory of the origin of languages

1. The report examines the new, so-called. "Water" theory of the origin of languages, its causes, the methods applied in the research surveys, the results obtained, as well as ways identified for further development of the theory and practical achievement of new results.
2. The new theory of the origin of languages is not contrary to scientific theory, which still exists. All of them are correct, but each of them contributed to the creation of languages only to a certain extent.
3. We concluded that this theory unifies all scientific theories, besides, it is in complete agreement with the mythological conceptions of ancient civilizations, "scattered" in time and space, and particularly interesting – widespread in biblical beliefs.
4. Indeed, all new good (more or less good) is forgotten old! We believe that by the time the opening of the water theory was closely approached by our great scientist N. Marr, but ...
5. In fact, any theory is then highly valued when it produces practical results: clarifies the hitherto unexplained phenomena, fixed facts. In our view, this theory has been successfully tested on efficiency, having seen tangible results in establishing etymologies for actually "hopeless" called non-motivational terms.
6. The water theory does not give any preferences to any of the languages; it only indicates their common roots, to the tip thread coil that in skilled hands turns into Ariadne's thread to help pave the way in the maze of today's language world.
7. Finally, the report will discuss the principles of creating a computer system that, in addition to specific "utilitarian", will constitute a much more important goal - "it indicates to each language" (these are the words of the monk Zosima-Ioane, who lived in the tenth century) their common roots of existence and peoples of the world and it will provide an opportunity to accomplish common good.

 

 

Helen Youselyani

Islamic Republic of Iran

New examples of the Georgian calligraphic Art

Art